Types of Volcanic Soil and Its Benefits for the Agricultural Industry

Types of Volcanic Soil and Its Benefits for the Agricultural Industry
Blog Papers. Volcanic soil is formed from weathered material from volcanic eruptions. This land is known to be very fertile and widely used for agriculture. The distribution of volcanic soil is quite evenly distributed, especially in the area around the slopes of the volcano. One area that has this type of soil is the area around the slopes of Mount Merapi. This volcanic eruption, in fact, can provide many benefits to the local residents affected by the eruption. Indonesia as one of the countries that has active mountains, is overflowed by various types of soil which are known for their fertility. One of them is volcanic soil.
This land is widely available, which has many active mountains. This volcanic eruption is the origin of this type of soil. The agricultural industry utilizes many fertile volcanic soils in order to increase agricultural output. This soil contains substances that are needed by plants. The characteristics of this land are as follows from Journals Research Paper: Behind the disaster saved huge benefits that can be felt by the community. Volcanic eruptions produce soil that is famous for its fertility. People on the slopes of Mount Merapi, for example, many feel the benefits of this land in the form of abundant agricultural products.
This is why people are reluctant to move from the slopes of Mount Merapi because they do not want to lose their agricultural land. volcanic soil and its uses. Drawing of volcanic soil appearance on the slopes of a volcano. In general, volcanic soil is divided into 2 groups. Although the characters have similarities in terms of nutrient content. But there are things that distinguish these 2 types of soil. especially the functions and physical aspects. The 2 types of land groups are: Regosol Land. This type of soil has gray to yellowish characteristics, rough soil texture, and contains little organic matter. Regosol soil is suitable for crops and fruits.
Latosol Land. This type of soil that originates from the eruption of the volcano has the characteristics of red to yellowish, fairly moderate organic matter content, and has acidic properties. Types of plants commonly planted in this land include coconut, rubber trees, rice, and secondary crops. The volcano disaster is indeed one of the quite devastating natural disasters. The resulting eruption is hot and can damage all objects that are passed. Sometimes not a few victims fall. Even so, this disaster still must be thankful for because it contains intent that can provide many benefits. That is why even though it is a disaster-prone area, the slopes of the volcano are still used as a haven for some of the surrounding communities. The fertility of this type of soil is already in doubt. The high nutrient content is very suitable for planting various types of plants, especially crops and fruits. There are many benefits to this type of land, including: Fertilize the soil.
One of the determinants of soil fertility is the amount of nutrient content in the soil. Nutrients act as nutrients and staples for plants. Volcanic soils have high nutrient content and also neutral ph which is good for plant growth. This is what causes this land to be used as agricultural land. Increase agricultural output. One of the goals of planting is to get a lot of agricultural produce. This starts from choosing the right type of soil. One type of soil that is suitable for agriculture is soil that results from volcanic eruptions. This land is mostly found on the slopes of volcanoes.
High nutrient content makes this soil able to support plant growth optimally. Commonly planted plants are usually fruit and secondary crops. Plants on the slopes of the mountains are known to have good quality. In addition to the number of fruit produced quite a lot. Agricultural products also have a high selling value. Besides that maintenance is quite easy because all the elements needed by plants are available in this volcanic soil. Utilizing this type of soil as agricultural land and farming is a suitable choice. Not only impact on agricultural products but also on livestock products. Fertile land and many overgrown plants is the best feed for livestock.
The agricultural industry is greatly assisted by the presence of volcanic soil. Abundant agricultural products are not only felt by farmers, all Indonesians also feel the benefits. With abundant harvests, the economic condition of farmers is also increasing. Besides that, the community also benefits from the ease of getting quality fruits and crops without having to buy imported agricultural products that are more expensive.

Characteristics of compost

Characteristics of compost
In addition to providing nutrients for plants, compost works by improving the physical, chemical and biological structure of the soil. Physically, compost increases the ability of the soil to store water as a reserve in times of drought. Compost also makes the soil loose and is suitable for growing roots of plants. Even on sand-type soils, compost is used as an adhesive so that the soil becomes more solid. Whereas on clay or clay, compost functions to loosen the soil so it is not too solid. Chemically, compost can increase the cation exchange capacity in the soil. According from Academics Research Education, because the more organic content in the soil, the better the cation exchange capacity. The cation exchange capacity functions to release important elements so that they can be absorbed easily by plants. Biologically, compost is a good medium for soil organisms to multiply.
Whether it's from the type of microorganisms and other soil animals. Microorganism and soil animal activities will enrich the soil with important nutrients for plants. A good compost has the following general characteristics: (1) It smells the same as the soil, does not smell bad, (2) The color is blackish brown, in the form of loose granules like soil, (3) If put in water completely sinks, and the water still clear does not change color, (4) If applied to the ground does not trigger the growth of weeds. a. Compost forming process.
Any type of organic material will naturally experience weathering and decomposition by hundreds of types of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, yeast) and other soil animals. The decomposition process goes with aerobic and anaerobic reactions one after another. In the aerobic process, during the composting process there is no foul odor and will release energy in the form of heat. The increase in temperature due to heat released is very beneficial for the aerobic microbial environment. However, if the heat exceeds 65oC, most microbes will die and the composting process is slow. So it is necessary to decrease the temperature by stirring or reversing. In the anaerobic process the reaction is gradual. The first stage, several types of facultative bacteria will break down organic matter into fatty acids. Then followed by the second stage, where other microbial groups will convert fatty acids into ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen.
The heat generated in the anaerobic process is lower than that of aerobics. In general, the composting stage is divided into three phases. The first phase is the decomposition of organic material that is easily decomposed, produces high heat and lasts briefly. Then followed by the second phase, decomposition of organic materials that are difficult to decompose. Both phases produce fresh compost. Then the third phase is the maturation of compost into a humus-clay complex bond which results in the form of mature compost. Characteristics, odorless, crumb, blackish color, contain nutrients and have the ability to bind water.
b. Compost fertilizer. Compost raw material can be taken from the remains of plants and / or animal waste. Each ingredient contains different elements. These elements function as nutrients needed by plants. Before making compost, we should know the purpose of fertilization first. We must know what substances are most needed by the plants we are caring for. For example, a newly growing plant needs more nitrogen (N), while plants that will bear fruit need more potassium (K). After we know the purpose of fertilizing, then what kind of compost is determined?
Compost fertilizer is not like synthetic chemical fertilizer, where the nutrient contained in fertilizer is clearly the composition. In the compost, nutrients needed by plants are available in different compositions. Its composition depends on the raw material used. Even so, we can make compost with nutrient composition that is tailored to the needs. We can make it by using a raw material approach. Each organic material has a specific content element. For example, straw, forage and chicken manure have a large N content. Well, we can make these materials compost that is rich in N elements.

Benefits of Compost Fertilizer for plants

Benefits of Compost Fertilizer for plants
The most important benefits of compost for plants are improving soil structure and providing organic material for plants. Benefits of Compost Fertilizer for Plants Compost fertilizer is an organic fertilizer that is made by breaking down the remains of plants and animals with the help of living organisms. To make compost, raw materials are needed in the form of organic material and decomposing organisms. Influence of composted crop residues on productivity, Composting technology is developed from the process of decomposing organic materials that occur in the wild. The formation of topsoil in the forest is one example of natural composting. The process of making compost goes very slowly, it can take months to years.
Then humanity modifies the process of decomposition of organic material. So that composting is managed by humans can be done in a shorter time to become compost. Compost according to Wikipedia is the result of partial / incomplete decomposition of a mixture of organic materials that can be artificially accelerated by populations of various kinds of microbes in warm, humid, and aerobic or anaerobic conditions (Modified from J.H. Crawford, 2003).
Whereas composting is the process by which organic material decomposes biologically, especially by microbes that utilize organic material as an energy source. Making compost is managing and controlling the natural process so that compost can be formed more quickly. This process involves making a balanced mixture of ingredients, providing adequate water, regulating aeration, and adding composting activators.
The benefits of compost for plants are: Increase soil fertility Improve soil structure and characteristics Increase the absorption capacity of ground water Increase soil microbial activity Improve crop quality (taste, nutritional value, and amount of harvest) Provides hormones and vitamins for plants Pressing the growth / attack of plant diseases Increases nutrient retention / availability in the soil There is a fundamental difference between soil treated with compost and treated without compost (inorganic fertilizer). Soil that is given inorganic fertilizer will continuously experience a decrease in nutrient quality and will increase the hardness of the soil structure.
Provision of inorganic fertilizer must be interspersed with the provision of organic fertilizer (compost). It is hoped that the soil structure can be improved and at the same time not reduce soil fertility in the long run Compost is one of the organic fertilizers made by breaking down the remains of plants and animals with the help of living organisms. To make compost, raw materials are needed in the form of organic material and decomposing organisms. Decomposition organisms can be microorganisms or macroorganisms. Composting technology is developed from the process of decomposing organic materials that occur in the wild. The formation of topsoil in the forest is one example of natural composting.
The process is very slow, can take months to years. Then humanity modifies the process of decomposition of organic material. So that human-managed composting can be done in a shorter time. Compost fertilizer is easy to make and the technology is simple. Everyone can do it, both for agricultural scale and just for yard purposes. Please read how to make compost for agriculture and household scales. Types of compost The grouping of types of compost can be seen from three aspects. First, judging from the manufacturing process, there are aerobic and anaerobic compost. Second, judging from the decomposer, there are composts that use microorganisms and some that take advantage of macroorganism activities.
Third, seen from the shape there is a solid and there is also a liquid. The following are a few examples of the types of compost commonly used. 1. Aerobic compost fertilizer Aerobic compost is made through biochemical processes that involve oxygen. The main raw material for making aerobic compost is crop residues, animal waste or a mixture of both. The manufacturing process takes 40-50 days, for more details, please read how to make compost. The length of time of decomposition depends on the type of decomposer and fertilizer raw material.
2. Bokashi fertilizer Bokashi fertilizer is one of the most well-known types of anaerobic compost. The characteristic feature of bokashi fertilizer lies in the type of inoculant used as its starter, which is effective microorganism (EM4). This inoculant consists of a mixture of various kinds of selected microorganisms that can decompose organic matter quickly and effectively. To find out how to make it, please read the article on how to make bokashi fertilizer. 3. Vermicompost Vermicompost is a compost product that utilizes macroorganisms as decomposers. Macroorganisms used are earthworms of the Lumbricus type or other types. Vermicompost is made by giving organic material as food to earthworms. This dirt produced by earthworms is called vermicompost. Another type of organism that can be used to make compost is maggots (maggot black soldier fly).

Soil Types Based on Texture

Soil Types Based on Texture
Understanding Soil Texture - Soil texture is one of several soil physical properties such as soil color, soil structure, moisture content, bulk density, and so on. Soil Texture is a relative comparison between dust, clay and sand fractions in percent form. Soil texture is closely related to hardness, permeability, plasticity, fertility, and soil productivity in certain areas. Soil texture indicates the relative ratio of various classes of soil particles in a mass. The relative size of soil particles is implemented in the form of texture which refers to the fineness or roughness of the soil. Soil Types Based on Texture (Contrasting Soil Textural Classes) Hanafiah (2005) states that clay-dominated soils will have small pores (not porous).
Land that is dominated by sand will have large pores (more porous). Whereas dust-dominated soil will have moderate pores (somewhat porous). Based on the texture class, the soil can be classified into: 1. Fine-textured or coarse-earth ground; it means that the soil has a minimum of 37.5% clay, whether it is dusty clay or sandy clay. 2. Medium textured or clay soil; meaning that this land is composed of: Medium textured soil, including soil with the texture of dusty loam (silty loam), very fine sandy loam, loam (loam), or dust (silt). Medium-textured but rather coarse soils, including soils that are fine sandy loam or sandy loam. Medium and rather fine textured soil, including dusty clay loam (sandy silt loam), sandy clay loam (sandy clay loam), and clay loam (clay loam).
3. Coarse-textured or sandy soil; it means that land has a minimum of 70% sand, and / or sandy textured, and / or sandy clay. soil type based on texture Soil types based on texture class. Soil Texture Function Soil texture can serve to determine the water system in the soil in the form of penetration, infiltration speed, and the ability to bind water. Soil texture is very determining physical and chemical reactions in the soil, because the size of soil particles can be a determining factor in the surface area of the soil. The dust and sand fraction has minimal (low) surface activity, so that chemically and physically it can be considered inactive. While the clay fraction is the most important because it has a maximum surface area (height).
The clay fraction can increase the cation exchange ability. In addition the clay colloidal system is a "cementing agent" (binding agent) which is very important in the soil aggregation system. Soils with a smooth texture have a minimum surface area, making it difficult to hold water and absorb elements present in the soil. Soil with clay texture has a maximum surface area, so that the durability and shelf life of nutrients is quite high (Hardjowigeno 2003). If soil samples are analyzed the results will always show that the soil has particles of varying sizes, some of which have very fine, colloidal, fine, very coarse, and coarse sizes.
The size of such particles has been classified into certain groups or groups based on their diameter, regardless of their color composition, chemistry, weight, or other properties. Particle analysis in which the soil particles are separated is often referred to as soil mechanical analysis. Analysis such as this results in a distribution model according to soil particle sizes (Hakim et al, 1986). Soil texture greatly affects the ability of aeration, infiltration, water absorption, availability of water in the soil layer, and the rate of movement of water (percolation). Therefore, soil texture can also indirectly influence the development of plant growth, roots, and savings in fertilization.

Fertile Soil and Microorganisms

Fertile Soil and Microorganisms
Land will be said to be fertile if it is able to be a good growth medium for plants during vegetative and generative periods which in turn will deliver plants that produce not only optimal but also maximum results. The land condition will only be fulfilled if the soil condition has physical, chemical and biological fertility criteria. Factors that should be a major concern in the condition of agricultural land is biological soil fertility which has not been a special consideration in agricultural methods in general and emphasizes soil physical fertility and soil chemical fertility.
In the context of biological fertility, bacteria diversity in soils are said to be fertile if they have high microbiological or microorganism content and diversity needed by plants and are symbiotic mutualism of plant roots also play a role in protecting plants from the influence of pathogenic microorganisms as well as the chemical conditions of potentially toxic soils as well as forming physical characteristics the soil is a good environment for the growth of plant roots. Fertile soils contain more than 100 million microbes per gram of soil.
the productivity and carrying capacity of the soil depends on the microbial activity. Most microbes have a beneficial role for agriculture, which plays a role in destroying organic waste, recycling plant nutrients, nitrogen biological fixation, phosphate dissolution, stimulating growth, biocontrol of pathogens and helping the absorption of nutrients. Soil organisms (especially microorganisms) are important in soil fertility for agricultural crops because they play a role in the energy cycle, nutrient cycles, formation of soil aggregates, and determine soil health (suppressive / conducive to the emergence of diseases especially soil borne pathogenic diseases).
At least there are at least 6 (six) types of microorganisms that can be well developed by farmers in the soil on agricultural land to optimize agricultural output (especially rice) and plantations to the maximum, namely: Azotobacter sp Azotobacter acts as nitrogen tethering, a process that causes free nitrogen to be chemically combined with other elements.
Azozpirillium sp Azozpirillium acts as a production of phytohormones such as auxin, cytokinins, and gibberellins), increased nutrient absorption, increased stress resistance, production of vitamins, siderophore and biocontrol, and P. dissolution. Streptomyces sp Streptomyces act as agents of plant pathogen control by producing antibiotics and hydrolytic compounds such as glucanase, chitinase that can degrade fungal cell walls.
Saccharomyces sp Saccharomyces has the ability to break down the bonds of saccharides on high carbohydrates so that they are expected to play a role in releasing bound nutrient substances to digest digestive enzymes. Aspergillus sp Aspergillus is a phosphate solvent that dissolves phosphate from insoluble sources, thereby increasing plant growth / productivity, especially in marginal soils. Trichoderma sp Trichoderma becomes a biocontrol agent because it is antagonistic to other fungi, especially those that are pathogenic. Trichoderma can also be used by farmers in the process of accelerating composting.

Understanding Public Finance and Public Financial Management

Understanding Public Finance and Public Financial Management
Understanding Public Finance. Terminology of Public Finance which can be interpreted as State Finance, government finance which means government financial activities (our study does not include government activities in the economy). In theory, it is not always clear the subject of public finance, because it depends on the form of the state, the government system and the constitution that governs the life of a country's state State finance: all rights and obligations of the state that can be valued in money, as well as everything in the form of money or in the form of goods that can be owned by the state in connection with the implementation of these rights and obligations. Public finance also includes aspects of financing carried out by the government (Public sector financial management for Economic Growth):
Financing is any revenue that needs to be paid back and / or expenses to be received again, both in the relevant fiscal year and subsequent fiscal years. Other terminology of state debt and / or accounts receivable The approach used in formulating State Finance is in terms of: Objects, In terms of objects referred to as State Finance include all rights and obligations of the state that can be valued in money, including policies and activities in the field of fiscal, monetary and management of separated state assets, as well as everything in the form of money, or in the form of goods that can be become the property of the state in connection with the implementation of Subjects, from the subject matter referred to as Finance covers all objects as mentioned above which are owned by the state, and / or controlled by the Central Government, Regional Governments, State / Regional Companies, and other bodies that are related to state finance.
Process, In terms of process, State Finance covers the entire set of activities related to object management as mentioned above starting from policy formulation and decision making to accountability. Objectives, In terms of objectives, State Finance includes all policies, activities and legal relations relating to ownership and / or control of objects as mentioned above in the context of administering state government. Definition of Public Financial Management The understanding of the public sector is seen from the perspective of economics that is the public sector is an entity whose activities are related to efforts to produce public goods and services in order to meet the needs and rights of the public.
The public sector is a place for the government to produce public goods and services in meeting public needs by prioritizing the welfare of society. So that in carrying out all its activities the public sector is arranged in all its activities and work programs in a budget. The main role of public sector management accounting is the provider of accounting information that will be used by public managers in carrying out organizational planning and control functions. Management accounting is the most important part of an integrated management control system.
The Institute of Management Accountats (1981) defines management accounting as a process of identifying, measuring, accumulating, analyzing, preparing, interpreting, and communicating financial information used by management for planning, evaluating, and controlling an organization and for ensuring that resources are used appropriately and accountable. Public Financial Management is all activities or efforts or activities carried out by the government (central and regional) in managing all state affairs, particularly those relating to government financial activities ranging from managing revenue, expenditure to financing policies.
While the understanding of the public sector budget Public sector budget is a plan of activities presented in the form of revenue and balance acquisition plans in monetary units. The public sector budget is a breakdown of all aspects of the activities to be carried out which are composed of revenue and expenditure plans that will be carried out within one year. The public sector budget is made to assist the government in helping the level of community growth such as electricity, clean water, health quality, education and so on so that it is appropriately guaranteed and the level of community welfare will be more secure and the use and allocation more effective and efficient. The principles of the public sector budget according to Mardiasmo (2004; 67-68) as follows, namely:
Authorization by the legislature, Public budgets must get authorization from the legislature before the executor can spend the budget. Comprehensive, the Budget must show all government revenues and expenditures. Therefore, the existence of non-budget funds basically violates the principle of a comprehensive budget. Budget integrity, All government revenues and expenditures are collected in general funds. Non dissretionary appropriation, Amounts approved by the legislative council must be utilized economically, efficiently and effectively.
Periodic, the Budget is a periodic process, can be annual or multi-yearly Accurately, budget estimates should not include hidden reserves (hyden reserves) that can be used as pockets of waste and inefficiency of the budget and can lead to the emergence of underestimate income and undere- stimate expenditure. Clearly, the Budget should be understood by the public and not be confused. Known to the public, the Budget must be made public.

Teacher Concepts in Thinking Perspectives

Teacher Concepts in Thinking Perspectives
Education is a guidance or leadership consciously by the educator on the physical and spiritual development of the educated towards the formation of the main personality (Marimba, 1998: 9). Education also means as all the actions and efforts of the older generation to transfer their knowledge, experience, skills, and skills (people call this also transferring culture) to the younger generation, in an effort to prepare it to fulfill its life functions both physically and spiritually. It can also be said that education is a deliberate attempt by an adult to increase the child's influence to maturity which is always interpreted to be able to assume the moral responsibility of all his actions (Zuhairini, et al. On Educational Reform and Value Re-Orientation).
The hope of the guidance given by this teacher is a change in students themselves. The formation of personality is the result of changes in the educational process. Personality is the main goal of Islamic education which always prioritizes the value of Islamic teachings. But the reality now is the quality of education is increasingly down, because education has not reached its true goal. Even education is now used as a tool to achieve fame, position and material alone. Therefore, the higher a person's level of education is not necessarily the better his personality.
Thus the teacher becomes one of the factors of education must be professional in carrying out their teaching activities, because it is the teacher who gives great influence to their students, so the teacher is required to be able to provide good direction in accordance with the educational goals of forming personalities that are in accordance with Islamic values. Thus the success of the learning process is achieved. The success and failure of a teaching and learning process in general can be judged by the outputs, ie people who are as educational products. When education produces people who can be responsible for humanitarian and divine tasks, act more in favor of both themselves and others, education is said to be successful. Conversely, if the outputs are people who are unable to carry out their life's tasks, the education fails (Rusn, 1998: 123).
The success of education in producing output is largely held by the teacher, because the teacher is one of the components in the teaching and learning process that plays a role in the effort to form potential human resources in the development field (Sardiman, 1990: 123). Teachers in providing knowledge to students are not only done in formal educational institutions, but can also be carried out in mosques, at home, and so on, as is the community's view of teachers (Isa, 1994: 79) as said by Syaiful Bahri Djamarah that:
The teacher is the spiritual father or spiritual father of a student. He who gives food and soul knowledge, moral education and justify it. So respecting the teacher means respecting us, teacher appreciation means respect for our children. It is with these teachers that they live and develop (2000: 42). The above description shows that the duties and responsibilities of the teacher are so great, the teacher is required to have abilities
 Nowadays being a teacher is not as easy as imagined, the teacher must be professional, meaning that the teacher must have the personality, capability, and quality of adequate human resources supported by adequate human resources as well. This is nothing but to achieve the desired educational goals, and also basically the task of the teacher is like a doctor's task which cannot be left to just anyone (Gordon, 1986: 1). If the assignment is left to the non-expert, then wait for its destruction. In addition, according to Dr. Muhaimin M.A, in his book Islamic Education Development Discourse said that:
Teacher professionalism must be supported by several factors, among others: 1) high dedication to the task, 2) commitment to the quality of work processes and results and 3) continuous improvement attitude, which is always trying to improve and update its work methods, in accordance with the demands epoch based on a high awareness that the task of educating is the task of preparing the next generation who will live in the future (2003: 209). Realized or not basically the responsibility of a child's education is based on his parents because the parents have an interest in the progress of the child's development, namely the child's success is the success of the parents, then due to various activities and other factors that do not allow parents to educate their children, then this is where the task of a teacher (Nata, 1999: 62).